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Italy has managed four nuclear reactors until the s, but in , after the Chernobyl disaster , a large majority of Italians passed a referendum opting for phasing out nuclear power in Italy. The government responded by closing existing nuclear power plants and stopping work on projects underway, continuing to work to the nuclear energy program abroad. In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy , ranking as the second largest producer in the European Union after Germany and the ninth in the world.

The country is also the world's fifth largest producer of energy from solar power.

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Renewable sources account for the Italy was the first country in the world to build motorways , the so-called "autostrade", reserved for motor vehicles. The Milano-Laghi motorway, connecting Milan to Varese and now parts of the A8 and A9 motorways, was devised by Piero Puricelli, a civil engineer and entrepreneur.

He received the first authorization to build a public-utility fast road in , and completed the construction between and By the end of the s, over kilometers of multi- and dual-single-lane motorways were constructed throughout Italy, linking cities and rural towns. It is the 12th largest in the world , and is operated by state-owned Ferrovie dello Stato , while the rail tracks and infrastructure are managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana.

While a number of private railroads exist and provide mostly commuter-type services, the national railway also provides sophisticated high-speed rail service that joins the major cities. The Florence—Rome high-speed railway was the first high-speed line opened in Europe when more than half of it opened in In the TAV was created for the planning and construction of high-speed rail lines along Italy's most important and saturated transport routes Milan-Rome-Naples and Turin-Milan-Venice.

There are approximately airports in Italy , of which 99 have paved runways including the two hubs of Leonardo Da Vinci International in Rome and Malpensa International in Milan , and 43 major seaports including the Port of Genoa , the country's largest and the third busiest by cargo tonnage in the Mediterranean Sea. In Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about , units and a merchant fleet of ships. In , poverty in Italy hit the highest levels in the previous 10 years. The numbers of those in absolute poverty rose nearly an entire percent in , from 6. The north is better off at 6.

In , the proportion of poor households in relative poverty also increased to ISTAT defines relative poverty as people whose disposable income is less than around half the national average. The unemployment rate in February remained at Also, children are hit hard. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National economy. Milan , the financial centre of Italy. Fiscal year.

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Inflation CPI. Population below poverty line. Gini coefficient.

Human Development Index. Average net salary. Tourism machinery iron and steel chemicals food processing textiles motor vehicles clothing footwear ceramics. Ease-of-doing-business rank. FDI stock. Current account.

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Gross external debt. Public debt. Budget balance. Credit rating. Main article: Economic history of Italy. Main article: Economy of Italy under fascism. Main article: Italian economic miracle. Further information: List of companies of Italy and List of largest Italian companies. Further information: List of Italian billionaires. Main article: List of banks in Italy.

Main article: Energy in Italy. Main article: Transport in Italy. Retrieved 12 September International Monetary Fund.

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Retrieved 16 April Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January World Bank. Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 26 May Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 24 October Scope Ratings. Retrieved 7 December The Economist. Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 6 February November World's Top Exports. Archived from the original on 9 February The Oxford handbook of the Italian economy since unification. London [u. The history of Italy [Online-Ausg. Westport, Conn. Growth and Structure in the Economy of Modern Italy.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Industrialization in nineteenth-century Europe 2nd ed. London: Longman. Banca d'Italia. The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Modern Italy, New York : Longman. Mussolini and Fascism. New York : Routledge. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. Italian Fascism, Basingstoke : Macmillan Publishers. Liberal and Fascist Italy, Oxford : Oxford University Press. The New York Times. Economic Growth in Europe Since Power in Europe? Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. Central banks' independence in historical perspective.

Sommario di statistiche storiche ". Retrieved 8 October Borsa Italiana. Brussels : Lisbon Council. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 30 May Financial Times. Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 26 November London School of Economics. Retrieved 7 October Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 10 September Brand Finance. Retrieved 9 February October Business Insider. Credit Suisse. Archived from the original PDF on 9 February August Retrieved 15 November Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Retrieved 24 November International Review of Law and Economics.

Roma: Edizioni Nuova Cultura. Turin: ILTE. Modern Italy: A Political History. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press. New York : W. European Parliament. The Guardian. Programma Operativo Nazionale. Obiettivo Sud. Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Retrieved 11 February Italy today: Facing the Challenges of the New Millennium. New York : Lang Publishing. According to the researchers, the first four the occupational balance, the risk of unemployment, the occupational rate for foreigners and the need for foreign occupation , are useful to measure the effects of the crisis, while the rate of preservation of the permanent job positions and the index of contractual instability are mostly aimed at measuring the quality of the work conditions.

The index of turn-over, furthermore, is useful to measure the progressive ageing of the Italian population in its working age. The tenth index is the rate of foreign workers entrepreneurship. However, it must be taken into consideration — together with the well-known differences in terms of demographic weight and of economic development that characterize the twenty regional administrative partitions — that the estimate is related only to the foreign immigrants who are regularly employed and possess the permit of sojourn.

The study remarks the clear dichotomy, in terms of occupational power attraction — and therefore of residential choices — between the Northern regions and the Southern ones Perulli, Pichierri, A the top of the list there is in fact Friuli-Venezia Giulia with a score of This last factor, though characterized by a great heterogeneity of situations, still remains a sign of success for the migrant Ambrosini, , pp. The third region in the ranking of the Moressa Foundation is Trentino-Alto Adige with a score of Among the other regions that are characterized by a strong occupational power of attraction there are Liguria A the opposite end of the ranking there are the regions of Southern Italy, with scores that are far from the national average.

The last region in the ranking is Calabria with a score as low as The economic crisis has been the catalyst of many problems that were already present in the Italian context, but emerged faster at the surface because of the global crisis. A similar perspective was also offered by the research Gli effetti della crisi economica sugli stranieri immigrati The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Foreign Immigrants by the Turin-based Fieri International and European Forum for Researches on Immigration and the University of Turin, which was presented in May www.

Reading the report, one learns that the immigrants nearly always face, in renting a house, bigger difficulties than the Italians, starting from a lack of a coherent information system in the migratory project destination place, where often the only sources of information are the ethnic solidarity chains, occasional friends and colleagues at work.

Of course all these limitations sum up in increasing the obstacles that foreign citizens face in finding a proper house Cesareo, And also incremented the circular mobility of immigrant workers which takes place especially during the unemployment or the redundancy fund periods , characterize mostly by the return to the cities of first immigration, or towards other European countries, or to the country of origin.

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The national average of foreign population in the province capitals is 8. The percentage of foreign population living in province capitals is Foreign residents, though, started to move to smaller towns and villages, profiting from the dispersed structure of the productive system in Northern and Central Italy and from the lower rents available in small centers. This trend has been documented, for instance, in a key region for immigration, Lombardia Nearly one fourth The record linkage system adopted by Conti et al. At both the regional and the provincial level the tendency seems to be related also, even though with smaller numbers, to the dispersal of the foreign population from the bigger cities to the smaller towns Istat, What Perocco and Cillo , p.

One of the few certainties in this continuously evolving situation is the fact that the territorial dimension already is one of the most promising dimensions for researches on immigration Chiodini, Milano, Within the general goal of facilitating the integration of foreign citizens through the consolidation of the different forms of economic, social, political and cultural citizenship, the access to the housing market appears to be a key component for the process of stabilization of the migrants Rolnik, Rapporto , Milan, Franco Angeli, pp.

Dossier Statistico La crisi italiana nel mondo globale. Immigrati e lavoro in Italia , Bologna, il Mulino. AWAD I. Studi e riflessioni sulla dimensione economica degli stranieri in Italia , 0 , 1 December , pp. Il potenziale di integrazione nei territori italiani. Labour migration in times of recession.


What can we learn from the past , Policy Network Paper, 6 July , www. Studi e riflessioni sulla dimensione economica degli stranieri in Italia , 0 , 1 December , p. Edizione RUIZ I. In particular, Carlo Brusa is the author of paragraphs 2, while Davide Papotti of paragraphs 1, 3, 4 and 5. The authors wish to thank the organizers and the participants for the useful feedbacks provided during the conference. The authors also thank the three anonymous referees who provided useful critiques and suggestions for the improvement of the text. For a historical overview of the relation between the Italian labor market and immigration, see Ambrosini, and Ambrosini, Berti, For a recent comment on the last available data on immigration in Italy, see Ismu, , and Caritas Migrantes, For a general research on the impact of the economic crisis on illegal migration in Europe see Frontex, The data were updated to the first trimester of , and derived from the Istat databases.

On this topic, with similar conclusions, see also Fullin, Reyneri, For a general overview of the working mobility of foreign immigrant within the Italian labour system, see Ismu-Censis-Irps, On Italian internal mobility see also Piras, Melis, Contents - Previous document - Next document. Carlo Brusa and Davide Papotti. Outline Introductory notes. The economic crisis and the real estate market.

The search for a house as a factor of mobility. Cities or towns? Mobility within the urban hierarchy.