Finally in the evening of 11 May , Gray's men found a safe channel and he and his crew sailed their ship Columbia into the estuary of what he named the Columbia River after his ship. Gray's find was a significant claim besides the Lewis and Clark Expedition put forth by the United States to claim possession of the Oregon Territory.
Beginning about United States ships often sailed along the West Coast to gather furs for trading with China. They traded steel knives, hatchets, blankets, kettles, whiskey, guns, powder, lead and other trade goods for furs collected by the natives. The land above San Francisco had no Spanish presence.
The Russian-American Company was created in as a joint venture between Russian fur traders and United States ship merchants who agreed to purchase fur seal and sea otter furs obtained by the Russians. American ships brought food and other supplies to the Russian settlements, assisted in fur hunts, and took furs away. The company constructed settlements in what are today Alaska, Hawaii and California. This was the southernmost outpost of the Russian-American Company. To keep unwanted Spanish intrusion away the Russians built a palisaded fort equipped with several cannons.
Their objective in setting up Ft. Ross was to harvest fur seals and sea otters and grow grain and vegetables for the use of other Russian trading centers in Russian Alaska. The fur company at Fort Ross typically had a few score Russians with up to 75 Aleut who harvested usually under some duress the fur seals and sea otters from their kayaks on or near the Farallon Islands , the Channel Islands of California and in the ports and bays around San Francisco Bay.
The Aleuts of Russian Alaska probably had the largest effect on the Channel islands and its people. These otter-hunters from the Aleutian Islands set up camps on the surrounding Channel Islands and traded with the native peoples in exchange for permission to hunt otters and seals around the island. In Hudson Bay Co. This fort was the main supply depot for Hudson Bay forts in all the Pacific Northwest. Within a few years they were growing quantities of wheat, constructed saw and flour mills, and yearly shipped lumber to the Hawaiian Islands and flour to Sitka, Alaska.
They were resupplied every year by two to three ships that brought trading supplies around Cape Horn from England. Sea otters and fur seals were severely depleted on the California coast and islands by the s. Hudson's Bay Company entered the coast trade in the s with the intention of driving the Americans away. This was accomplished by about just as the fur trade industry started dying due to lack of supply and a style change in felt hats—felt was made from fur and the main fur market.
The depleted supply of sea otters and the easy trade with the British in Fort Vancouver for food stuffs led the Russians to abandon Fort Ross in and sell the cannon and other supplies to John Sutter who was building up Sutter's Fort near Sacramento, California. The Hudson Bay Company departed from their trading post they had set up in Yerba Buena San Francisco in because of the declining fur trade and the death of their agent there. The expedition with five ships was authorized by Congress in It is sometimes called the "Ex. Navy Lt. Charles Wilkes — The expedition was of major importance to the growth of oceanography and cartography of the Pacific.
Two of these ships were lost from accidents—one on the Columbia River in From the area of modern-day Portland, Oregon , an overland party headed by George F. Emmons was directed to proceed via an inland route to San Francisco Bay. This Emmons party traveled south along the Siskiyou Trail , including the Sacramento River , making the first official recorded visit by Americans to and scientific note of Mount Shasta , in northern California. The Emmons party rejoined the ships, which had sailed south, in San Francisco Bay. After their return Wilkes published the major scientific works Western America, including California and Oregon and Theory of the Winds The Pacific Squadron , established , was part of the United States Navy squadron stationed in the Pacific Ocean in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Initially with no United States ports in the Pacific, they operated out of Naval storeships which provided naval supplies like powder and ammunition and purchased fresh supplies of food, wood and water from local ports of call in California, Hawaiian Islands called the Sandwich Islands then and ports and harbors on the Pacific Coast.
The five American navy sailing ships initially stationed in the Pacific had a force of U. Marines and bluejacket U. Navy sailors on board available for deployment and were essentially the only significant United States military force on the Pacific coast in the early months of the Mexican—American War. The Marines were stationed aboard each warship to assist in close in ship to ship combat for either boarding or repelling boarders and could be detached for use on land. In addition there were some sailors on each ship that could be detached from each vessel for shore duty and still leave the ship functional though short handed.
Naval gunnery officers typically handled the small cannons deployed as artillery with the sailors and marines. Hostilities between U. Army dragoons in the future state of Texas. Taylor's forces drove the Mexicans from the field. The United States Congress responded to these hostilities by issuing a declaration of war against Mexico on 13 May — the Mexican—American War had begun. Speculating that war with Mexico over Texas and other land was very possible, the U.
Navy had sent several additional naval vessels to the Pacific in to protect U. Initially as the war with Mexico started there were five vessels in the U. Navy's Pacific Squadron near California. In and , after war was declared, this force was increased to 13 Navy sailing ships —over half the U. Navy's available ships. This would be the last conflict the U. Navy fought with only sailing vessels as they rapidly converted to steam ships shortly after this conflict. The former fleet surgeon William M.
There they heard word of the ongoing hostilities between the U. On 17 May this courier's messages informed Commodore Sloat that hostilities between the U. Sloat , commander of the U. Hearing rumors of possible Californio military action against the newly arrived settlers in California this had already happened in ,  some settlers decided to neutralize the small Californio garrison at Sonoma, California.
On 15 June , some thirty settlers, mostly former American citizens, staged a revolt and seized the small Californio garrison in Sonoma without firing a shot. Initially there was little resistance from anyone in California as they replaced the dysfunctional and ineffective Mexican California government—which already had 40 Presidents in the first 24 years of its existence. Most settlers and Californios were neutral or actively supported the revolt. John A. Sutter and his men and supplies at Sutter's Fort joined the revolt. The republic was in existence scarcely more than a week before the U.
Army's John C. Ide the leader of the Bear Flag Revolt. The California state flag of today is based on this original Bear Flag and still contains the words "California Republic". In the U. Navy was under orders to take over all California ports in the event of war. There were about — U. Marines and U. Navy bluejacket sailors available for possible land action on the Pacific Squadron 's ships. Seymour, outside Monterey Harbor, Commodore Sloat was finally stirred to action.
On 7 July —seven weeks after war had been declared, Commodore John D. Fifty American marines and about bluejacket sailors landed and captured the city without incident—the few Californio troops formerly there having already evacuated the city. They raised the flag of the United States without firing a shot.
The only shots fired were a 21 gun salute to the new 28 star U. Navy ships in the harbor. Fallon received an American flag from Commodore John D.
Sloat, and raised it over the pueblo on 14 July. Stockton when Stockton's ship, the frigate Congress , arrived from Hawaii. Stockton, a much more aggressive leader, asked Fremont to form a joint force of Fremont's soldiers, scouts, guides etc. This unit called the California Battalion was mustered into U.
These men included Fremont's 30 topographical men and their 30 scouts and hunters, U. Marine Lieutenant Archibald H. Gillespie , a U. Navy officer to handle their two cannons , a company of Indians trained by Sutter and many other permanent California settlers from several different countries as well as American settlers. The California Battalion members were used mainly to garrison and keep order in the rapidly surrendering California towns.
The Navy went down the coast from San Francisco, occupying ports without resistance as they went. The small pueblo town of San Diego surrendered 29 July without a shot being fired. The small pueblo of Santa Barbara surrendered without a shot being fired in August On 13 August a joint force of U.
Captain Archibald H. Gillespie , Fremont's second in command , with an inadequate force of 40 to 50 men were left to occupy and keep order in the largest town about 3, in Alta California —Los Angeles. Seymour, also shows up about this time outside Monterey Harbor.
Both British ships observe, but did not enter the conflict. Shortly after 9 July when it became clear the American Navy was taking action, the short-lived Bear Flag Republic was converted into a United States military conflict for possession of California and the Bear Flag the basis for today's California flag was replaced by the U. Fremont expeditionary forces joined forces with a volunteer force of California residents to form a small volunteer militia. Stockton when he took over as the senior United States military commander in California in late July Stockton asked Fremont to muster the troops and volunteers under his command into the California Battalion to help garrison the towns rapidly being captured from the Californios.
Most towns surrendered without a shot being fired. The California Battalion varied in size with time from about initially to over by January Pacific Squadron war ships and storeships served as floating store houses keeping Fremont's volunteer force in the California Battalion supplied with black powder , lead shot and supplies as well as transporting them to different California ports. A minor Californio revolt broke out in Los Angeles and the United States force there of 40—50 men evacuated the city for a time.
Later, U. After the Los Angeles revolt started the California Battalion was expanded to a force of about men. In early January a man joint force of U. Marine, U. Navy bluejacket sailors, General Stephen W. Kearny 's 80 U. Army dragoons cavalrymen and about two companies of Fremont's California Battalion re-occupied Los Angeles after some minor skirmishes—after four months the same U.
The minor armed resistance in California ceased when the Californios signed the Treaty of Cahuenga on 13 January The Californios who had wrested control of California from Mexico in now had a new government. After the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed, the Pacific Squadron then went on to capture all Baja California cities and harbors and sink or capture all the Mexican Pacific Navy they could find. More reinforcements of about soldiers and a few women of the Mormon Battalion arrived at San Diego, California on 28 January —after hostilities had ceased. These troops were recruited with the understanding they would be discharged in California with their weapons.
Most were discharged before July More reinforcements in the form of Colonel Jonathan D. Stevenson 's 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers of about men showed up in March—April —again after hostilities had ceased. On 26 September the four ships left New York for California. The Perkins did not stop until San Francisco, reaching port on 6 March The Brutus finally arrived on 17 April After desertions and deaths in transit, four ships brought Stevenson's men to California.
Initially they took over all of the Pacific Squadron's on-shore military and garrison duties and the Mormon Battalion and California Battalion's garrison duties. The ship Isabella sailed from Philadelphia on 16 August , with a detachment of one hundred soldiers, and arrived in California on 18 February , the following year, at about the same time that the ship Sweden arrived with another detachment of soldiers.
These soldiers were added to the existing companies of Stevenson's 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers. These troops were recruited with the understanding they would discharged in California. When gold was discovered in late January , many of Stevenson's troops deserted.
The first to hear confirmed information of the California Gold Rush were the people in Oregon , the Sandwich Islands Hawaii , Mexico, Peru and Chile and they were the first to start flocking to the state in late By the end of , some 6, Argonauts had come to California. Polk made the "official" announcement of the discovery of gold in California during his State of the Union Address on 5 December and displayed about ounces of California gold at the War Department. Excitement grew as rumors, reports of officers and soldiers in California, newspaper accounts all seemed to confirm that there was a tremendous amount of gold in California—just waiting to be picked up.
Sam Brannan, publisher of the newspaper the California Star at San Francisco, is regarded as starting the "Gold Rush" with stories about the large amount of gold found throughout late and These "forty-niners" left behind families and jobs in the hope of instant wealth. A few succeeded handsomely, but the gold fields destroyed some and disappointed many more.
As the easily mined placer gold deposits were worked out the much more capital intensive hard rock mining took over. Americans and foreigners of many different countries, statuses, classes, and races rushed to California for gold. Argonauts , as they were often called, walked over the California Trail or came by sea. About 80, Argonauts arrived in alone—about 40, over the California trail and 40, by sea.
In April , a harbor master's estimate counted 62, people from across the globe arriving in San Francisco by ship in the preceding 12 months. Hundreds of ships lay abandoned, anchored in San Francisco Bay , their passengers and crews abandoning the ships to search for gold. A popular concept of the California Gold Rush portrays the overland migration coming by wagon, yet according to the evidence, more people journeyed by sea.
A typical wagon journey took about days while a voyage by paddle wheel steamer, a short land trip and another paddle wheel steamer could be done in as short as 40 days over the Isthmus of Panama or Nicaragua route once the shipping lines were established in about Before farms could be set up, cities and industries built, etc. Tools, clothing, and everything needed for an standard of living for miners and an expanding population would in most cases have to initially be imported from the East coast of the United States or Europe.
Sea transport was about the only way cargo of any kind could be delivered to California. High value cargo like gold and passengers usually went by the Panama or Nicaragua route. Bulkier, lower value cargo, usually went by sailing ship around Cape Horn. A standard sailing ship took an average of about days to go this route while the faster Clipper ships averaged about days.
Not until the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in was there any easy way to move cargo across land to California. Even today, bulky or heavy cargo is usually sent by ship because it is cheap and efficient, though slower than other methods. Note: Paddle wheel steamers did not reach California by sea until long after the gold "rush" had ended. See later in this article for the date which was long after the "rush". Some enterprising Argonauts set up businesses to furnish, feed, and entertain the region's growing population.
Some merchants, gamblers, saloon keepers, entertainers , hotel owners, restaurant owners etc. The lack of money specie often meant that transactions and wages were paid in several different currencies or in gold dust. The population of San Francisco boomed as it was the main entry point for sea born travelers and goods of all kinds. San Francisco by was declared the main Port of entry in California for all imported goods. By San Francisco had a population of about 20, the largest city in California then that had swelled to over 36, by the California Census.
The population of California grew from 8, in to about , in The vast majority of the California Argonauts as they were frequently called were young Anglo men from the United States. Those on the East Coast who could afford the trip usually traveled on paddle steamers and occasionally sailing ships to Panama, Nicaragua or Mexico; they then traveled by land to the Pacific and caught another ship to California. Those who lived in the Mid West usually went by wagon, as many already had a wagon and team and were familiar with wagon travel and often already had or could quickly purchase any additional wagons, animals, supplies and equipment needed for a long wagon trip.
A great many Chinese men came to California, very early in the Gold Rush, having only to cross the Pacific by boat, rather than sail all the way around The Horn or cross the treacherous Isthmus of Panama as many of the Anglo men had to do. The traffic to California was so heavy that in two years these settlers, combined with those coming by wagon from Salt Lake City Salt Lake was not yet a city, by any means; it was a "new" settlement, where the Mormon leaders had taken their people with the hope of living in peace, free from outsiders , Utah to Los Angeles in winter, the travelers down the Gila River trail in Arizona.
See Notes: to make it the 31st state. All land routes were restricted to the seasons where travel was feasible. Those going by wagon train could not leave until the snow melted and the trails were dry and enough grass had started to feed their livestock—usually early May. Most of those traveling by wagon already lived in the mid-west and many already had a wagon. There were four major routes by sea: paddle steamer or occasionally sailing ship to the future countries of Panama, Nicaragua or Mexico, a trip across land to the Pacific and then a trip by paddle steamer to California.
These routes were used by travelers who could afford them being the fastest—about 40—60 days. The other major sea route was by sea around Cape Horn or the Magellan Straits and on to California—this trip typically took over days and was the main shipping route for merchandise. Most of those traveling by ship lived on the Eastern seaboard and were acquainted with sea borne commerce and travel. Those traveling by land and sea to California had enough residents in California by about , by corrected U.
Census data  See Notes: for California in to become the 31st state. By the shipping industry was in transition from sail powered boats to steam powered boats and from wood construction to an ever-increasing metal construction. There were basically three different types of ships being used: standard sailing ships of several different types.
River steam boats typically used rear mounted paddles and had flat bottoms and shallow hulls designed to carry large loads on generally smooth and occasionally shallow rivers. Ocean-going paddle steamers typically used side-wheeled paddles and used narrower deeper hulls designed to travel in the often stormy weather encountered at sea. The ship hull design was often based on the clipper ship design with extra bracing to support the loads and strains imposed by the paddle wheels when they encountered rough water. The Allaire Iron Works of New York supplied Savannah's 's engine cylinder ,  while the rest of the engine components and running gear were manufactured by the Speedwell Ironworks of New Jersey.
Savannah 's engine and machinery were unusually large for their time. The ship's wrought-iron paddlewheels were 16 feet in diameter with eight buckets per wheel. For fuel, the vessel carried 75 tons of coal and 25 cords of wood. The SS Savannah was too small to carry much fuel and the engine was intended only for use in calm weather and to get in and out of harbors. Under favorable winds the sails alone were able to provide a speed of at least four knots.
The Savannah was judged not a commercial success and its engine was removed and it was converted back to a regular sailing ship. Since paddle steamers typically required from 5 to 16 tons of coal per day to keep their engines running, they were more expensive to run. Initially, nearly all seagoing steamboats were equipped with mast and sails to supplement the steam engine power and provide power for occasions when the steam engine needed repair or maintenance. These steamships typically concentrated on high value cargo, mail and passengers and only had moderate cargo capabilities because of their required loads of coal.
The typical paddle wheel steamship was powered by a coal burning engine that required firemen to shovel the coal to the burners. By the screw propeller had been invented and was slowly being introduced as iron increasingly was used in ship construction and the stress introduced by propellers could be compensated for. As the s progressed the timber and lumber needed to make wooden ships got ever more expensive and the iron plate needed for iron ship construction got much cheaper as the massive iron works at Merthyr Tydfil , Wales, for example, got ever more efficient.
The propeller put a lot of stress on the rear of the ships and would not see large spread use till the conversion from wood boats to iron boats was complete—well underway by By the s the ocean-going steam ship industry was well established as the Cunard Line and others demonstrated. In the Oregon boundary dispute was settle with Great Britain and California was conquered in and annexed in The United States was now a Pacific Ocean power.
Only a few were going all the way to California. She had left behind about another potential passengers still looking for passage from Panama City. Trips across the Isthmus of Panama or Nicaragua typically took about one week by native canoe and mule back. In addition to this travel time via the Panama route typically had a two- to four-week waiting period to find a ship going from Panama City, Panama , to San Francisco before It was before enough paddle wheel steamers were available in the Atlantic and Pacific routes to establish regularly scheduled journeys.
Steam powered tugboats and towboats started working in the San Francisco Bay soon after this to expedite shipping in and out of the bay. As the passenger, mail and high value freight business to and from California boomed more and more paddle steamers were brought into service—eleven by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company alone. The trip to and from California via Panama and paddle wheeled steamers could be done, if there were no waits for shipping, in about 40 days—over days less than by wagon or days less than a trip around Cape Horn.
Most used the Panama or Nicaragua route till when the completion of the Panama Railroad made the Panama Route much easier, faster and more reliable. Between the and when the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed across the United States about , travelers had used the Panama route.
After when the Panama Railroad was completed the Panama Route was by far the quickest and easiest way to get to or from California from the East Coast of the U. Most California bound merchandise still used the slower but cheaper Cape Horn sailing ship route. Regular sailing ships that had been developed and refined over centuries of use were the cheapest and the slowest transports available. There were several types of sailing ships. They had typically been optimized to carry a large amount of cargo using a small crew of about 20 men and utilized sails in a combination of fore-and-aft rigging and square rigging.
Unless the cargo was time sensitive, they were utilized for nearly all long distance shipping and passenger service. At the end of the sailing era windjammers were developed to carry large volumes of low value cargo long distances.
Some of the most popular ships were four-masted barques, since the four-masted barque is considered the most efficient rig available because of its ease of handling, small need of manpower, good running capabilities, and good capabilities of rising toward wind. Once in San Francisco the crews often deserted the ships. The ship owners found little cargo of value to ship back to the East Coast out of California and the ships often went back in ballast with a cargo of useless rocks. Others were converted into store ships or floating warehouses, stores, hotels, prisons, etc..
Some abandoned ships were bought cheap, filled with ballast and sunk on the mud flats at high tide to enlarge the available wharves and docks. The ships were typically stripped of her upper works and all usable fittings by one of San Francisco's many marine salvage firms of Gold Rush days and then covered with debris and sand as developers filled in the mud flats on the bay and built wharves out to deeper water to accommodate docking ships. By nearly all abandoned shipping in the Yerba Buena Cove that had not been re-used was sent to a marine salvage or ship breaking firms where all usable fixtures, anchors, etc.
The rapidly expanding city of San Francisco needed room to store all of the incoming goods and much larger dockside facilities—there were none when California was annexed. There initially was not time to build adequate warehouses, wharves, docks on the water front.
In early September , the General Harrison , was discovered at the northwest corner of Battery and Clay streets during construction. She was built in in Newburyport, Massachusetts , and abandoned sometime before and turned into a store ship warehouse. She was She was burned to the water line in one of San Francisco's early fires. The remains, including some of the stores on board, were filled with sand and built over. The average realized speed for the typical sailing ship was about 3.
The clippers , developed and mainly used between about and were some of the last and "best" commercial sailing ships invented. The clippers had more sails and faster hulls and were some of the fastest sailing ships ever developed. The clippers required a larger crew to man the larger expanse of sails and typically carried high value cargo with few passenger accommodations.
The typical clipper carried high value, large volume cargo and normally carried only about six passengers. They competed with the paddle steamers on the shorter Panama, Nicaragua, and Mexican routes. Because of their shorter runs these paddle steamers were faster but much more costly to run and typically only took high value cargo like passengers, mail and gold shipments. These American clippers were larger vessels designed to sacrifice cargo capacity for speed.
They had a bow lengthened above the water, a drawing out and sharpening of the forward body, and the greatest breadth further aft. Extreme clippers were built in the period to Clippers sometimes took a trip across the Pacific Ocean to Shanghai or some other port in China to pick up a cargo of tea, silk, porcelain , etc. The alternative was to return in ballast with a useless cargo of rocks. Some Clippers were used on the Hawaii to California routes as they shipped mainly food stocks to California.
In the clipper Flying Cloud sailed from New York City and made San Francisco around Cape Horn in 89 days, 8 hours; a record that stood years until when the breakthrough-designed sailboat Thursday's Child  completed the passage in 80 days and 20 hours. The record was once again broken in by the special built French racing yacht Gitana 13 , with a time of 43 days and 38 minutes.
By mid there were steamship lines dropping people from off at the mouth of the Chagres River on the Caribbean side of Panama. There were then no docking facilities off the Chagres River mouth and passengers had to come ashore in small boats—not an easy task in bad weather. One of the major problems was getting reliable transport of luggage and freight over the Isthmus of Panama.
Even after all arrangements were made and payments made it was not unusual to have to wait weeks longer in Panama City for your luggage to arrive. A transit from the Atlantic to the Pacific or from Pacific to Atlantic would usually take four to eight days by dugout canoe and mule back. The transit was fraught with dangers and disease.
After the arrival in Panama City the traveler had to wait in a hot, dirty, crowded, disease laden city for their luggage to arrive and then for passage on a paddle steamer or sailing ship headed to California. One of the main problems initially encountered was getting further passage on a ship to California—there were not enough ships to carry the passengers and cargo that built up in Panama City. By late paddle steamer routes had been established to and from Panama City and other ports in Nicaragua and Mexico to San Francisco.
Panama City had a poor harbor and again the ships anchored off shore and a small boat was required to board them. A typical trip could be done in about 30—90 days assuming shipping and transit connections could be made. The biggest handicap the Panama, Nicaragua or Mexico routes had was the wait until scheduled Pacific shipping was established in late to carry them to California.
These routes also suffered form the risk of catching a possibly fatal disease and having to potentially endure threats of attack by bandits. Unfortunately, getting shipping from the Pacific ports of Panama, Nicaragua, or Mexico to California was very problematic until mid to late Mail, returning gold miners and gold shipments nearly all used the Panama Route. The number of passengers who used the Panama route in and is unknown but must be numbered in the tens of thousands. In 29, passengers used the Panama Route. This increased to 33, passengers in and dropped to 27, passengers in Many returned to California with their wives and families.
As steamships became available, regular paddle steamer service opened a major mail, passenger and high value cargo link between the two coasts of the United States. Regardless of how the miners had originally got to California nearly all returned East via Panama—the easiest and fastest route. The returning miners and the returning gold were welcomed in the East and the mail and newspapers exchanged soon established strong east-west bonds. After it was completed in the ease of use of the Panama Railroad meant that the Panama Route carried most of the high value, time sensitive freight to and from California.
Most female traffic went from east to west over the Panama Route which was the easiest and fasted route after about Women in the California Gold Rush were scarce but played a major role in settling California. Wives' and sweethearts' passage via Panama to California was normally paid for by miners or businessmen who had decided to stay in California.
Moy, C. Crowley, J. Causes of climate change over the past years. Volcanic and solar forcing of the tropical Pacific over the last years. Variations in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation over the past millenium. Kennett, D. Competitive and cooperative responses to climatic instability in coastal southern California. American Antiquity 62 , — Cook, E. The North American Drought Atlas.
Stine, S. Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during mediaeval time. Download references. This is a Southwest Climate Science Center contribution.
Mount Shasta: Spirits and Danger on a Sacred California Mountain
This research was initially conceived and funding obtained by G. Diatom identification and enumeration was done by A. Pollen analysis was done by K. Baysian age-depth modeling was done by J. Figures and tables were mainly prepared by A. The initial manuscript was written by G. Correspondence to Glen M.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Geophysical Research Letters Global and Planetary Change Quaternary Research Global Change Biology By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Palaeoclimate Palaeoecology. Abstract California has experienced a dry 21 st century capped by severe drought from through prompting questions about hydroclimatic sensitivity to anthropogenic climate change and implications for the future.
Introduction In the 21 st century California has experienced arid conditions and the most intense drought on record; 10 of the last 14 years have been drier than normal, and the last three have been the hottest and driest since 1. Figure 1: Location and topographic setting of Kirmin Lake, California and location of regionally adjacent sites mentioned in text.
Full size image. Sediment Core Acquisition and Analysis A sediment core was retrieved from Kirman Lake on July 18, , using a modified Livingstone piston corer from a fixed position raft near the center of the lake Fig. References 1. PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. Article Google Scholar 4. Article Google Scholar 6. PubMed Article Google Scholar 7. Article Google Scholar 8. Article Google Scholar 9. Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Download references. Supplementary information PDF files 1. Supplementary Information. Rights and permissions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
About this article Publication history Received 19 February Accepted 23 August Published 15 September Gillespie , Gregory S. Moser , J. Baron , J.
- Geologic Formations;
- Fem Dom.
- Sacred Mountain?
- California's Ancient Past: From the Pacific to the Range of Light.
- Geologic Formations - Channel Islands National Park (U.S. National Park Service).
- Maritime history of California - Wikipedia.
Brahney , I. Oleksy , J. Saros , E. Hundey , S. Sadro , J. Sommaruga , M. Kainz , A. Strecker , S. Chandra , D. Walters , D. Preston , N. Michelutti , F. Lepori , S. Spaulding , K. Christianson , J. Harrison , Marina L. Rodysill , Lesleigh Anderson , Thomas M.
Mount Shasta: Spirits and Danger on a Sacred California Mountain | Ancient Origins
Cronin , Miriam C. Jones , Robert S. Thompson , David B. Wahl , Debra A. Willard , Jason A. Addison , Jay R. Alder , Katherine H. About Palm Springs has one of the highest concentrations of same-sex couples of any community in the United States. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation. The city also held same-sex wedding ceremonies at the iconic 'Forever Marilyn' statue located downtown, before its relocation in Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley.
The city's economy now relies on tourism , and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT transient occupancy tax. It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
The world's largest rotating aerial tramcars  cable cars can be found at the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway. The San Jacinto Wilderness is accessible from the top of the tram and there is a restaurant with notable views. Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts including many catering to gay men.
For many years, The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies was a stage-show at the historic Plaza Theatre featuring performers over the age of The Palm Springs Follies closed for good after the —14 season. Starting in , the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.
Events related to films and film-craft are sponsored by the Desert Film Society. The city and various individuals have sponsored different notable public art projects in the city. These include:  .
- The Birthday Fantasy!
- On The Trail Of Madness.
- How to Vote.
- Nazi Nexus: Americas Corporate Connections to Hitlers Holocaust.
- Secret Guidebook to Medical School Admissions.
- Five Thousand Years of Slavery.
Numerous galleries and studios are located in the city and region. Both sites feature 6 teams of the Palm Springs Collegiate League in the summer. In , Palm Springs was approved to become the home to an expansion team in the American Hockey League to begin play in the —22 season. The Palm Springs area features numerous major sports events, including the annual BNP Paribas Open in March, voted by professional players over several years in the early 21st century as the premier mandatory Tournament of the Year.
With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. O'Donnell  and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the s. In the s the area had over 40 courses and in the th course was opened. In the Desert Riders was established. Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in , followed by a chamber of commerce ; the City itself was established by election in   and converted to a charter city , with a charter adopted by the voters in Presently the city has a council-manager type government , with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney.
The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library,  sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services.
The city government is a member of the Southern California Association of Governments. The current mayor is Robert Moon, elected in Moon is the City's third openly gay mayor in the city's history. Palm Springs' longest-tenured mayor was Frank Bogert —66 and —88 , but the best-known mayor in the city's history was Sonny Bono. Bono served from to and was eventually elected to the U. Public education in Palm Springs is under the jurisdiction of the Palm Springs Unified School District , an independent district with five board members. Originally it was a K—12 school in the s and had the College of the Desert campus from to And Raymond Cree Middle School in its current site since the mid s.
Elementary schools in Palm Springs include: . Alternative education is provided by the Ramon Alternative Center. California State University, San Bernardino and University of California, Riverside used to have satellite campuses available within the College of the Desert campus, but now have their own buildings in Palm Desert.
Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade. The city's library was started in and financed by Martha Hitchcock. It expanded in on land donated to the newly incorporated city by Dr. Welwood Murray and was financed through the efforts of Thomas O'Donnell.
The Bradshaw Trail operated from to Besides its tradition of mid-century modern architecture, Palm Springs and the region features numerous noted architects. Fickett , Haralamb H. Georgescu , Howard Lapham , and Karim Rashid. The Palm Springs area has been a filming location , topical setting , and storyline subject for many films, television shows, and works of literature. The fauna of Palm Springs is mostly species adapted to desert, temperature extremes and to lack of moisture.
It is located within the Nearctic faunistic realm in a region containing an assemblage of species similar to Northern Africa. Other animals include ground squirrels , rock squirrels , porcupines , skunks , cactus mice , kangaroo rats , pocket gophers and raccoons. Other avifauna includes the Ladder-backed woodpecker , flycatchers , elf owls , great horned owls , sparrow hawks and a variety of raptors.
The Sonoran Desert has more species of rattlesnakes 11 than anywhere else in the world. The largest rattle snake species here is the Western diamondback rattlesnake , while other species include the Black-tailed rattlesnake , Tiger rattler and Sidewinder rattler. Although Black bears are not common in the Coachella Valley , bears have been observed in Palm Springs and other parts of California. Today, Jaguars roam the northern Mexican dry-lands; however, they were previously common throughout the Coachella Valley.
The last documented Jaguar sighting in Palm Springs, was in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Palm Springs disambiguation. City in California, United States. Palm Springs. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: List of people from Palm Springs, California. Main article: Palm Springs in popular culture.
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The Countryman Press. Archived from the original on August 16, Retrieved August 28, Why not let them have it, eh? The Sacramento Bee. Sacramento Bee. Retrieved September 8, Insider's Guide to Palm Springs. Doherty The Cahuilla. Rourke Publications. Arcadia Publishing. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. University of California Press. Mountain Press Publishing. Trees Company Press. Palm Springs Legends: creation of a desert oasis. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. Art of California. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved August 18, Fifteen Hundred California Place Names. Retrieved April 5, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Becker, Jonathan photographs. Vanity Fair : — Archived from the original PDF on December 11, Views in Palm Valley San Francisco. See: Foster, Ethel T. Little Tales of the Desert. Villa, Hernando G. Just beyond [the Indian village] was Palm Springs settlement itself, with lots of tents, several houses, a store and [Dr. Murray's Hotel] They visited the funny little cottages with their roofs and sides all covered with big palm leaves instead of boards.
Then they went up to the hot springs. The Desert Sun. Palm Springs: Gannett. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Available as a pdf file through the HathiTrust Digital Library. Wonders is illustrated with over drawings by desert artist Carl Eytel. Many of those drawings, including the Title Page figure, are used throughout Steve Lech's extensive history of early Riverside County. See: Along the Old Roads cited above. March 2, Retrieved August 30, The Literary Digest. XXXIV 7 : — February 16, This elaborate treatise is a distinct contribution to the literature of the natural wonders of our country.
Gilmour, John Hamilton February 3, San Francisco Call. He has written admirably and knowingly The Dream Endures: California Enters the s. New York: Oxford University Press. Palm Springs Life. Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved October 20, County of Riverside Historical Marker No. Palm Springs California: presented with the compliments of the Desert Inn.
Palm Springs: Desert Inn. Smeaton . Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved February 24, Charleston, SC: Arcadia. Also see: Turner, Mary L. The Beautiful People of Palm Springs. Sedona, AZ: Gene Weed. The Racquet Club would cater to the Hollywood elite for decades. Palms Springs and the Coachella Valley. Horatio Limburger Oglethorpe. California's Gold.
Chapman University Huell Howser Archive. Archived from the original on May 18, Retrieved May 18, Resorts of Riverside County. Palm Springs: First Hundred Years. Palm Springs: Palm Springs Library. Archived from the original PDF on February 1,