Republican representation in the legislature and other public offices had declined rapidly after the Constitution was adopted. That document began the process of restricting black voter participation and expanding all forms of Jim Crow laws. Further orchestrated efforts at voter intimidation, lynchings, vote fraud, and the inability of differing Republican factions to work together all doomed the party to long-term failure.
After the election no black, and few Republicans, would be elected to the legislature again until the s. However, the first Republican Congressmen from Alabama were elected in Kellogg, Benjamin W. Norris, Charles W. Pierce, John B. Callis, and Thomas Haughey who would be assassinated in Alabama while giving a speech.
They were most dominant in Marshall, St. Clair, Shelby, and Chilton Counties. Between Shelby County was usually closely contested under the leadership of A. Chilton County was decidedly Republican between —, including electing Lewis W. Reynolds as a Republican Probate Judge in and again in Scheuing was elected Cullman County Sheriff in ; J.
In , J. Aldrich — , both served as Republicans. William Aldrich also served in the 55th Congress —99 and the 56th Congress —01 with the unusual distinction of having been seated all three times in disputed elections ultimately decided by Congress itself. After William Aldrich left Congress in , no Republican would be elected again until Following the end of the populist era, Republicans effectively competed in even fewer isolated hill counties, mostly in north Alabama.
While the Reconstruction period saw their strongest voting base in the black belt counties, Republicans also relied on many north Alabama counties that had never been strong proponents of the instutition of slavery. They garnered support from a coalition of small farmers, blacks, labor, prohibitionists, labor, etc.
Again, these were often voters primarily from counties across the northern width of the state like Lawrence, Blount, Cullman, Walker, Winston, and DeKalb counties. Many of these counties elected Republicans to local office or occasionally to the state legislature even as late as the s. During this period the Republican Party relied heavily on federal patronage with federal appointments during Republican administration in Washington for such offices as local Postmasters.
Hooper, Sr. Both would later go on to greater electoral successes. Siebels, Jr. In , the state party made a historic change from a state convention nominating system for all candidates to having a statewide party primary where voters would directly choose all nominees for public and party offices. This change would only slowly have one of its desired goals to greatly increase support for the GOP. In , the party would begin its long steady build-up to competing for seats in the legislature by winning a few seats in suburban Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery. Senator in Alabama history.
Legislative membership continued to climb and Republicans also began winning various statewide offices. Today, Republicans hold both U. House of Representatives. No Democrat has been elected to the U. Senate from the state since when Richard Shelby was elected to a second term. After , a coalition of White Democratic politicians passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise African American residents, a process completed in provisions of the constitution. Provisions which disenfranchised blacks resulted in excluding many poor Whites. By more Whites than Blacks had been disenfranchised: , to , The total effects were greater on the black community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised and relegated to separate and unequal treatment under the law.
From through the s, the state did not redraw election districts as population grew and shifted within the state during urbanization and industrialization of certain areas. As counties were the basis of election districts, the result was a rural minority that dominated state politics through nearly three-quarters of the century, until a series of federal court cases required redistricting in to meet equal representation.
Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the s and s during the civil rights movement , when whites bureaucratically, and at times violently, resisted protests for electoral and social reform. Governor George Wallace , the state's only four-term governor, was a controversial figure who vowed to maintain segregation. Only after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of  and Voting Rights Act of did African Americans regain the ability to exercise suffrage, among other civil rights.
In many jurisdictions, they continued to be excluded from representation by at-large electoral systems, which allowed the majority of the population to dominate elections. Some changes at the county level have occurred following court challenges to establish single-member districts that enable a more diverse representation among county boards. In , the Alabama Legislature passed, and Republican governor Bob Riley signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. In , Republicans won control of both houses of the legislature for the first time in years.
With the disfranchisement of Blacks in , the state became part of the " Solid South ", a system in which the Democratic Party operated as effectively the only viable political party in every Southern state. Since the mid to late 20th century, however, there has been a realignment among the two major political parties, and white conservatives started shifting to the Republican Party. In Alabama, majority-white districts are now expected to regularly elect Republican candidates to federal, state and local office.
Members of the nine seats on the Supreme Court of Alabama  and all ten seats on the state appellate courts are elected to office. Until , no Republicans held any of the court seats. In that general election, the then-incumbent chief justice, Ernest C. Hornsby , refused to leave office after losing the election by approximately 3, votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr. Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing in court.
This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench. In the early 21st century, Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education. In , Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in years. The last remaining statewide Democrat, who served on the Alabama Public Service Commission was defeated in Only three Republican lieutenant governors have been elected since the end of Reconstruction, when Republicans generally represented Reconstruction government, including the newly emancipated freedmen who had gained the franchise.
Many local offices county commissioners, boards of education, tax assessors, tax collectors, etc. Many rural counties have voters who are majority Democrats, resulting in local elections being decided in the Democratic primary. Similarly many metropolitan and suburban counties are majority-Republican and elections are effectively decided in the Republican Primary, although there are exceptions.
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Alabama's 67 county sheriffs are elected in partisan, at-large races, and Democrats still retain the narrow majority of those posts. The current split is 35 Democrats , 31 Republicans , and one Independent Fayette. As of [update] , the state of Alabama has one female sheriff, in Morgan County, Alabama , and ten African-American sheriffs. The state's two U.
Shelby and Democrat Doug Jones. Shelby was originally elected to the Senate as a Democrat in and re-elected in , but switched parties immediately following the November general election. In the U. House of Representatives , the state is represented by seven members, six of whom are Republicans: Bradley Byrne , Mike D. Rogers , Robert Aderholt , Morris J. Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the purview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1, individual schools provide education for , elementary and secondary students.
Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. While Alabama's public education system has improved in recent decades, it lags behind in achievement compared to other states. According to U. Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is not uncommon in Alabama, with 27, public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the — school year.
Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to a multitude of doctoral level programs. The largest single campus is the University of Alabama , located in Tuscaloosa , with 37, enrolled for fall In the season, Alabama averaged over , fans per game and Auburn averaged over 80, fans, both numbers among the top 20 in the nation in average attendance.
It seats 71, Alabama has several professional and semi-professional sports teams, including three minor league baseball teams. It has a seating capacity of , and is the thirteenth largest stadium in the world and sixth largest stadium in America. For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent , a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with station stops at Anniston , Birmingham , and Tuscaloosa.
I enters the state from Mississippi and connects Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee.
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A sixth route, I , will be formed when I is rerouted along a new southern bypass of Montgomery. A proposed northern bypass of Birmingham will be designated as I Since a direct connection from I to I will not be possible, I has been proposed, as well. Several U. Highways also pass through the state, such as U. The Port of Mobile , Alabama's only saltwater port, is a large seaport on the Gulf of Mexico with inland waterway access to the Midwest by way of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.
The Port of Mobile was ranked 12th by tons of traffic in the United States during From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 21 September This article is about the U. For other uses, see Alabama disambiguation. A state in the United States. Latin : Audemus jura nostra defendere We dare defend our rights. Mount Cheaha   .
Gulf of Mexico . Interactive map showing border of Alabama. Main article: History of Alabama. Main article: Geography of Alabama. See also: List of Alabama counties and Geology of Alabama. Main article: Climate of Alabama. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length. See the Manual of Style on use of images.
Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Demographics of Alabama. Main article: List of metropolitan areas of Alabama. Main article: List of cities and towns in Alabama. See also: Alabama locations by per capita income. Main article: Government of Alabama. See also: List of counties in Alabama. Main article: Elections in Alabama. Main article: Education in Alabama.
Main article: List of colleges and universities in Alabama. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. March See also: Category:Alabama media and List of newspapers in Alabama. Main article: Alabama literature. Main article: List of professional sports teams in Alabama. Main article: Transportation in Alabama. Main article: Aviation in Alabama. NGS data sheet. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, United States Geological Survey.
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History haunts, but Alabama changes
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From Alabama to Wyoming: Here is the best and worst thing about every state
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